No 26

Greenhouse climatic warming is underway and exacerbated by human activities. Future outcomes of these processes can be projected using computer models checked against climatic changes during comparable past atmospheric compositions. This study gives concise quantitative predictions for future climate, landscapes, soils, vegetation, and marine and terrestrial animals of Oregon. Fossil fuel burning and other human activities by the year 2100 are projected to yield atmospheric CO2 levels of about 600-850 ppm (SRES A1B and B1), well above current levels of 400 ppm and preindustrial levels of 280 ppm. Such a greenhouse climate was last recorded in Oregon during the middle Miocene, some 16 million years ago. Oregon’s future may be guided by fossil records of the middle Miocene, as well as ongoing studies on the environmental tolerances of Oregon plants and animals, and experiments on the biological effects of global warming. As carbon dioxide levels increase, Oregon’s climate will move toward warm temperate, humid in the west and semiarid to subhumid to the east, with increased summer and winter drought in the west. Western Oregon lowlands will become less suitable for temperate fruits and nuts and Pinot Noir grapes, but its hills will remain a productive softwood forest resource. Improved pasture and winter wheat crops will become more widespread in eastern Oregon. Tsunamis and stronger storms will exacerbate marine erosion along the Oregon Coast, with significant damage to coastal properties and cultural resources.


No 25

The cervid genus Bretzia was first described in 1974 from antler and skull material found in the White Bluffs local fauna of the Pliocene Ringold Formation in south-central Washington. Cervid specimens from the Ringold deposits had been mentioned in published reports in 1917, and 1953, but not until a series of specimens was collected by Willis E. Fry and donated to the Burke Museum in Seattle, about 1970, was the evidence adequate to provide a preliminary diagnosis of Bretzia. The basis of the genus was a series of shed antlers and a portion of the skull of a male individual. Although statements have been made generally characterizing the dentition and postcranial skeleton as similar to Odocoileus, the detailed descriptions of these elements have not previously been published.

Bretzia was similar in size to modern O. hemionus (mule deer) but differed in antler morphology and details of the skull, teeth, and postcranial skeleton. The antler pedicles are more widely separated than in most Cervidae. The antlers are distinctive, with a single anterior tine and a posterior beam which in adult individuals forms a large palmate structure. Enough antlers are known to present a developmental series including juvenile, adolescent, adult, and senescent forms. Numerous details of the dentition and postcranial skeleton, including the metacarpals show that Bretzia pseudalces was a telemetacarpal deer (subfamily Capreolinae). The relationship of Bretzia to the living tribes (Alcini, Capreolini, and Rangiferini) is uncertain. Bretzia was one of three known genera (Bretzia, Odocoileus, and Eocoileus) in an early Pliocene (ca. 5 Ma) evolutionary radiation of cervids after the initial immigration from Asia into North America around the time of the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. The Ringold Formation deposits in which the cervid sample was found date to the early Blancan (early Pliocene), probably between 5.0 and 4.8 Ma. The White Bluffs cervid sample largely consists of seasonal (winter and spring) accumulations of bones, antlers, and teeth, which were scattered, weathered, and then buried by spring floods. The proximal environment was a level floodplain with the streams bordered by forest and brush, and surrounded by marsh, small lakes, and grassland. The climate was seasonal but somewhat milder and wetter than at present.

1 - 2 of 2 Items